The Furby Papers
Several papers of historical interest were discovered by the Guide, in an attic of a home off Brown Street, in 1925. Below are a series of articles published in the Guide in March 1925, describing some of the papers found.

from the Evening Guide, March 9, 1925 - page 1.
DISCOVERY OF HISTORICAL VALUE MADE IN ATTIC OF OLD RESIDENCE.

Documents of extreme interest now in hands of Daily Guide;
Series of articles begins immediately. As a result of an investigation conducted by the Guide, in an effort to locate the first printing office in Port Hope, several documents of great historical Interest have been discovered. Some time ago we began collecting material for a series of articles about the early days of Port Hope. As a matter of especial interest, we undertook to unearth the original printing shop in Port Hope, and our search has been richly rewarded. Acting on information received from various sources, the permission of Mr Walter Roberts was obtained, and a thorough exploration made of the attic of his home off Brown street. This building, we learned, was one of the shops owned and conducted by the late William Furby, father of the late George M Furby, former manager of the Midland Loan and Savings Co., early in the nineteenth century. Here much of the first printing in Port Hope was done, and quite probably the original local newspaper had its birth. This building originally stood just behind the residence of Mr B Skitch on Walton street and was used as a combined cabinet factory and printing shop. It was moved to its present location about fifty years ago. The attic of this building is a place of great interest in itself. Entered by an obscure trap door, the attic was seldom if ever looked into. Consequently, many of the interesting things we found have remained hidden away for the past century — anyone who did run across them not understanding their value. This garret is a true example of the early Canadian builders' art. Great square hewn timbers, intricately joined and designed, appear as freshly hewn as the day they were put in place. Not a sign of rot appears upon them to indicate their great age, probably one hundred to one hundred and fifty years. The roof too, has been practically watertight during this long period, as the papers found are in a remarkable state of preservation. The articles discovered include, a large number of newspapers, auction sale bills, legal documents and letters, dated as early as 1830, and continuing up to 1858. Several of the documents contain the names of eminent merchants, lawyers and citizens of that period. All the printed matter discovered was done on presses operated by hand, which process made an extremely heavy impression on the paper. Many peculiar and obsolete kinds of type were employed. During the next few weeks the Guide will give its readers a full story of the material found, which we trust will be of great interest. As far as possible, some of the papers of most importance will be duplicated in this series. Watch for the first article To-morrow.

ARTICLE 1.
from the Evening Guide, March 10, 1925 - page 1.
WILLIAM FURBY WAS FATHER OF JOURNALISM IN PORT HOPE As stated in yesterday's Guide, a most interesting discovery was made in the attic of an old residence on Brown Street last week, when a large number of valuable old manuscripts and papers were brought to light. Much of this material was the product of the original printing house in Port Hope, and as a fitting introduction to a series of articles relating to this matter, it was thought that a short history of the Press would be of interest.

William Furby, Father of Journalism.
The father of journalism in Port Hope was the late William Furby, Esq., who was born in Yorkshire, England, on September 5th, 1799. As a youth he acquired the printer's and cabinet-maker's trade and then crossed the Atlantic in 1819. He settled in Port Hope in 1826 and for many years engaged in the furniture business in a building to the west of the present Guide Office. In 1831 Mr Furby in partnership with a Mr Woodhouse purchased the printing plant of Mr John Vail who had established the Port Hope Telegraph a few months previously, and continued the publication of this, the first newspaper in Port Hope. Mr Vail's press was one of the old wooden variety, which Mr Furby soon after superseded with one of the first iron presses ever brought into Canada. His partner, Mr  Woodhouse, died in the summer of 1831 and Mr Furby continued the publication of the Telegraph alone. Its name was altered to the Warder in June 1833 and to the Gazette in April 1836. The latter newspaper, which professed neutrality in politics became extinct in 1838 but was probably followed by another paper. In 1844 Mr Furby began the publication of the Port Hope Gazette and Durham Advertiser and in 1851 altered its name to the Guide. It was about this period that Mr Charles Lindsey, now an old and respected citizen of Toronto, rendered Mr Furby's paper famous by means of the brilliant articles, which secured him a distinguished place among Toronto journalists. In 1856 George M Furby, Esq, elder son of William Furby took over the Guide and entered into partnership with Mr Crea. Under their management the Guide became a tri-weekly publication. Two years later Mr Furby sold out his interest to Mr Crea and the latter continued to issue the paper until 1861 when it ceased publication for a few months. Until 1875, when Mr George Wilson secured the paper, it passed through several hands, among them being those of Mr C Blackett Robinson, but during this period its publication could not be said to be continuous. Mr Wilson bought the Guide from Mr Moody and began to issue a daily paper in July 1878. Until about 1850 there was no opposition paper in Port Hope. The first such was the Watchman published by Mr Steel. In reality this paper had its origin in Mr Furby's office, for during its first two or three years' existence it was issued from Mr Furby's press. Then Mr Steel set up a plant of his own and until 1855 the Watchman was regularly published. The following year a professedly Conservative paper, the British Standard, appeared under the editorship of Mr James, while in November, 1857, it was succeeded by the Port Hope Atlas. This paper was edited by the distinguished writer, Mr Charles Roger , known by his journalistic contemporaries as the "Carlyle of the Canadian press" and now better known as the author of a History of Canada. He came to Port Hope from Quebec and resided here but a few years.

Several other papers have been in existence in Port Hope from time to time. Among these might be noted, the Echo, a Church paper, edited and published by the late Dr Shortt, the Messenger issued from 1860 to 1863 by Mr Hayter and the latter year removed to Millbrook, the Valuator, published in the sixties by the late Thomas Galbraith, and Mr W T R Preston's News bought by Mr Wilson in 1883, after a life of three, years.

Several Copies of Old Papers Found.
The above is reprinted from a little booklet entitled "Port Hope Historical Sketches," written by W A Craick.
Among the material discovered were copies of several of these papers, including three numbers of the Port Hope Gazette and Durham Advertiser dated in 1845, a part of a Watchman, several copies of the early issues of the Guide and an Echo. Besides these, copies of other papers published throughout Ontario at that time were found.
Tomorrow, we will reprint some of the most interesting items from these papers.

Article 2.
from the Evening Guide, March 11, 1925 - page 1.
CORRESPONDENT WRITES IN OLD TELEGRAPH REGARDING HARBOUR.

An Interesting Letter Discovered Among Mass of Correspondence.
Addressed to William Furby, Editor of Port Hope Telegraph. One of the most interesting articles discovered among the mass of material brought to light by The Guide. during their investigation of the old residence on Brown street, reputed to be the original printing shop in Port Hope, was a letter addressed to the editor of the Telegraph dated September 10th, 1831. The Telegraph was the progenitor of Port Hope's newspapers, and was originally published in 1831, by William Furby, in partnership with a Mr Woodhouse. This paper was a small, five column affair, many times only printed on one side of the sheet. Advertising occupied 75 per cent, of the space, the remainder being devoted to long reports of the doings of legislature and European occurrences. Very little local news was included, much of the material being editorial in nature. Publication of this paper was begun by using an antique wooden press, purchased by the partners from Mr John Vail. Soon after, however, an iron press (one of the first introduced into Canada) was installed, and with the increased facilities the Telegraph became the leading journal in Upper Canada at that time.

Signature Not on Letter.
The communication which we discovered was extremely well preserved considering its great age. Written in black ink, now badly faded, on heavy, hand-made paper, it is still sufficiently legible to be read with ease.
Addressed to William Furby, editor, and captioned "To the Telegraph," the letter bears no signature with the exception of the name Alfred. The writer appears to have been exceptionally well educated, for that period, as the hand-writing is even and well balanced. The spelling is correct in every detail, and the wording, although old fashioned, is precise and carefully constructed. The letter is of great value, historically, as one of the first steps toward progress made in Port Hope through the newspapers. Concerning a subject of portent at the present time, the letter is of great interest to our readers. We reprint it below exactly.

To the Telegraph.
"If any one can convince me that I am wrong in any point of sentiment or practice, I will alter it with all my heart. For it is truth I seek; and that can hurt nobody. It is only persisting in error or ignorance that can hurt us."
Mr Editor, — I was much pleased with the remark contained in your last paper, relative to the improvements which have recently taken place in Port Hope. Such praise worthy exertions as we have lately witnessed for the embellishment of this town, merit the commendations of every public spirited man, and it is truly pleasurable to observe the sudden transition from gloom to cheerfulness effected by the magic touchings of the painter's brush. The buildings now constructing show the skill of the architect, and afford evidence of the taste and wealth of the proprietors. Happy I should consider myself, were it in my power, to continue the pleasing picture, but it is too true, that the marsh near the mouth of the creek is a deplorable nuisance and a stigma on the character of the County, for it is not Port Hope alone that would experience the beneficial effects of a convenient harbor; it would extend its advantages to the whole County. Port Hope is far from being an unhealthy place, but there, can be no doubt that the draining of the marsh would render the air in its vicinity infinitely more pure, and it is the opinion of every man with whom I have ever conversed on the subject, that it might be converted into an excellent harbour at little expense, by the use of the dredging machine. It is of material consequence to the commerce and agriculture of the County Durham, or indeed of any County along the Lake, that it should have n safe harbour. And where, I should like to know, can there be found a spot so eminently calculated for one, or affording so many natural advantages for the formation of an artificial harbour, as the aforesaid, ugly-looking, foul-scented marsh? Any person walking along the sides of the marsh will readily admit that the smell arising there from is anything but odoriferous, and must be prejudicial to the health of the inhabitants for a considerable distance around. It is, therefore, in every respect much to be deplored that the parties who differ on matters connected with the management of affairs of the Harbour Company, should only be seeking for the mote in their adversary's eye, instead of endeavoring to remove the beam from their own. Those who are half blind are bad oculists. I am sure that any man of taste who views the beautiful hills to the west of Port Hope shining in contrast with the ill-favored marsh beneath, must regret that asperity of feeling which retards the prosperity of this town, and prevents it from giving "a long pull, and a strong pull, and a pull together." I do not expect that these remarks will have much, if any effect; it will, however, give one great pleasure to find that the respective parties have taken them in good part, and they arc certainly not interested in any unfriendly point, my object being merely the welfare of the community. How much bother it would be if some more talented person would devote himself to the task of endeavoring to persuade the conflicting parties to meet half-way and sacrifice their private feeling for the common good — such conduct would indeed exact the esteem of the inhabitants of the County at large. If they would but earnestly set about reconciling their difference's they would not find it such a difficult task as they now imagine. In conclusion I beg to observe that —
"The wise and prudent conquer difficulties
By daring to attempt them." 
I remain, Mr Editor, yours,
Alfred.
Port Hope, September 16, 1831.

Third Article To-morrow.
To-morrow the third article of this series will be presented in our columns. This will deal with the second paper published in Port Hope, The Port Hope Gazette and the Upper Canada Independent Examiner. Several items of much interest will be reprinted.

Old Books Being Sent In By Readers.
We are grateful to Mr William Southgate, William street, for the loan of a volume of great interest in connection with this series — the Directory of Canada for 1857-58. We would be very much pleased to have our readers send in any material they possess which would be suitable for use in this series. An article especially devoted to the Canada Directory will appear later.

ARTICLE 3.
from the Evening Guide, March 12, 1925 - page 1.
PORT HOPE THRIVING TOWN WHEN GAZETTE WAS FIRST PUBLISHED.
Stage Coaches and Steamship Lines Made This Town, Chief Stopping Place in Olden Days According to copies of the Port Hope "Gazette" and Upper Canada Independent Examiner, dated in 1837, found among the mass of material discovered by the Guide in the attic of an old Brown street residence, Port Hope was, at that time, one of the principal towns along Lake Ontario. The Gazette was the third newspaper to be published by William Furby, and succeeded the Watchman of which only a few dozen issues were published. We have been unable to locate even a stray copy of this paper. The editions of the Gazette in our hands are perhaps the only ones in existence, and are dated June 13, 1837 and August 29, 1837. A prospectus printed in 1834 to precede the first issue of the Gazette proclaims it to be a paper of Independent politics, religion and policy. In this prospectus, they state that their object in placing this paper before their readers was, "to promote virtue and piety in youth, loyalty in every subject and peace and good will among all." The paper was practically the same size as the present Daily Guide, twenty-two inches by fifteen. Five double measure columns very closely set in small type, were occupied with miscellaneous stories, agricultural hints, news items from England, Ireland, Scotland and the United States, some editorial matter and numerous advertisements. Local items were few and far between, and very little mention is made of our own town.

Gull Light House Tenders.
One of the most interesting items in this paper of June 13th., 1837, was an advertisement asking for tenders for the construction of Gull Island Lighthouse. The contract called for a circular tower fifty feet high, on a base twenty-eight feet in diameter. The lantern was to be seventy feet above the foundation, octagonal in shape, fitted with thirteen lights, the plates of which were to be run with vermillion to throw a blood light. This advertisement, the original copy of which is in our hands, is signed by W Sowden, J T Williams and W Owston, Commissioners appointed by the Lieutenant Governor to superintend the construction of the lighthouse.

Stage Coach and Steamship Lines.
According to the advertisements a regular stage coach service was maintained between Port Hope, Peterboro, Cobourg, Newcastle and other surrounding towns. The stage to Peterboro left the Exchange Coffee house here at nine o'clock every morning with the exception of Sunday, proceeding to Bewdley and arriving there in time to meet the steam-boat "Sir F Bond" on her return trip to Peterboro at eleven o'clock. Wagons were in attendance to convey baggage or merchandise. This service was widely employed by travellers from the Toronto coaches and Lake Ontario steamers running into our harbour. The Toronto and Kingston stages were met at the Exchange House every morning at nine o'clock. The service was conducted by B. Bletcher and fares were sold at William Weller's stage office, Cobourg, Mr Norman Strong's Exchange Coffee House, Port Hope and T Donaghue's stage office, Peterboro. Mail stages made regular trips to Peterboro each Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday.

List of Letters in Post Office.
Buck in 1837, it must be remembered facilities for handling mail were very poor. Unless one was a constant caller at the Post Office letters might remain there for weeks and with the difficulties of 
transportation in those days, a visit was only made once in a very long lime. In order to inform distant residents when a letter was awaiting them at the office, a list of the addresses was published 
in the Gazette each week. Lists from the three post offices in Newcastle, Port Hope, Cavan and Clarke appear in the copies of the Gazette in our hands. At that time, David Smart, Esq.,, wan the postmaster here, while J Knowlson and John Beavis held the positions at Cavan and Clarke respectively. Among the names on the Port Hope list are the following: — Richard Barrett, John Brown, James Baker, James Collins, Reuben P Grant, Robert Gibson, Terence Greeny, Mark Hewson, Myndert Harris Sr., (original settler at Port Hope) John Hatton, Sr.; J P Hagerman, James Mitchell, Francis Newton, Samuel Paterson, Norman Strong, Ben Scamins, James Sculthorpe, John Tate, John Walker, R Ward, Jacob and Nathan Walton and William Wallis.

A Runaway Apprentice.
At this time an indented apprentice was almost as strongly bound to his trade as a slave. An advertisement appearing in the Gazette bears this out: —
Runaway from the Subscriber, John McDonald, an Indented Apprentice. This is to forbid any person or persons from harbouring or employing him, as they will be prosecuted according to law.
William McBurney.
Peterboro, June 7th., 1837.

Tenders For Municipal Work.
An advertisement calling for tenders for several important municipal works is also found in this copy. This was before the formation of a Town Council, when Port Hope was governed by a President and a Board of Police. The first board was formed in 1834 with M F Whitehead as President and John D Smith, William Henderson, John Brown and Erasmus Fowke members.
The advertisement was as follows:

POLICE NOTICE

Written tenders will be received at the Police Office until the 15th Instance; for furnishing any given quantity of and 12 feet in length; also any given quantity of scantling 6 inches by 4 2 inch plank, 12 inches in breadth and 12 feet in length, to be delivered to the street surveyor, Mr Bennett, in the town of Port Hope, for the use of the Board of Police. Written, & separate tenders, will also be received for macadamizing Walton street, from the Bridge to the Shop of Thomas Wilcox. And, for building a Foot Bridge' across Port Hope River below Mr Smith's Mill, subject to the plan and specifications to be seen upon application to the Clerk.
Also for cutting a drain sufficient to drain off the stagnant water, and covering the same from the West side of the lane leading from the Post Office to the Brewery to Port Hope River.
By order,
R S Syer, Clerk.
Port Hope, June 2nd., 1837.

Tomorrow we will review the other papers found among this interesting mass of material. This will include reviews of a later Gazette and Durham Advertiser, The Watchman, the Commercial Advertiser, the Echo and the Churchman. 

ARTICLE 4.
from the Evening Guide, March 13, 1925 - page 1.
EARLY STEAMBOAT SERVICE MADE REGULAR CALLS AT PORT HOPE.
Many Interesting Items Appear in Old Copy of Gazelle
— Editor Specialized on Sensational News. Such was the interest aroused ay the article which appeared in yesterday's issue of The Guide, in which we reprinted a number of original advertisements from a Port Hope "Gazette". dated in June, 1837, that we are taking a number of items from another copy today in detail. Some of the advertisements which appear are novel and peculiar to our modern way of thinking, and are thus all the more interesting. At this early date very few local merchants employed, the columns of the newspaper for the purpose of advertising, but legal notices are very numerous. Among these we find a notice of removal signed by George C Ward, in which it was stated that: —

REMOVAL
George C Ward, Esq., Attorney at Law, has removed to the office lately occupied by the Farmers' Joint Stock Banking Co. in Walton Street, Port Hope, and one door, west of Mr William Benson's Store.
Port Hope, April 17th, 1837. This gentleman was one of the early attorneys in Port Hope and enjoyed a wide patronage, both locally and throughout the surrounding district. Many descendants of his family still reside in and around Port Hope.

Timetable of Steamship "Traveller".

Although Port Hope in 1837 was a very popular harbor and a prominent shipping point, via sailing vessels, only one steamboat (one of the few then operating on the Great Lakes) made regular calls. This was the "Traveller," the immediate successor of the trio of sister ships, "Niagara," "Constitution" and "Transit," which had been plying between American and Canadian ports since 1827. Transportation in these vessels was slow, and trips were made under very uncomfortable circumstances. The "Traveller's" timetable which appeared in the Gazette was as follows: —

LAKE ONTARIO. ROCHESTER, TORONTO, HAMILTON, COBOURG & PORT HOPE.
The Splendid, Fast Sailing Steamer TRAVELLER, Captain James Sutherland,
Will, on the opening of the Navigation commence making two trips a week between the above mentioned places, and leave as follows:— 
Rochester, at 10 o'clock am, on Mondays and Thursdays.
Cobourg, at 6 o'clock pm, on Mondays and Thursdays.
Port Hope, at 7½ o'clock pm, on Mondays and Thursdays.
Toronto, at 7 o'clock am, on Tuesdays and Fridays.
Hamilton, at 2 o'clock pm, on Tuesdays and Fridays.
Port Hope, at 5½ o'clock am, on Wednesdays and Saturdays.
Cobourg, at 7 o'clock am, on Wednesdays and Saturdays.
Respecting, Freight or Passage, information can be obtained on applying at the Rail Road Office, Rochester; Cobourg Harbour Company's Office; Port Hope Harbour Company's Office; James Browne and A McDonell, Esq.; Toronto; and D C Gunn, Esq., Hamilton.
All Baggage at the Owners' risk, unless booked as freight, and all freight payable on delivery. Toronto, April 6. 1887.

Original Siamese Twins.
The only other advertisement of interest was perhaps one of the first "theatrical'' notices published in Port Hope. It exploited the visit of Chang-Eng, the original united brothers, who were making a tour of America at that time. Read it below: —

SIAMESE TWINS FOR ONE DAY ONLY.
The united brothers, Chang-Eng, very respectfully acquaint the Ladies and Gentlemen of Port Hope, and its vicinity that they will be in that place on Monday, the 4th of September, 1837, and will receive Visitors at the Exchange Coffee House of Mr Norman Strong. The Hours of Admission will be from 3 till 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and 7 till 9 in the evening. Admittance 1s 3d. Pamphlets, containing an historical account of the Twins, with many interesting particulars never before published, can he purchased at their Room. Price, with an engraved likeness, 12½ cents; with a lithograph, 18Ύ cents. The twins have also a few copies of a very superior likeness executed in lithograph, and suitable for framing—Price 25 cents each.
No re-admission to the Room.

"News" Was of Sensational Nature.
The news items which appeared in the columns of the 'Gazette" were all clippings taken from foreign papers and were all published at least a month after the date on which they occurred. These items were tabulated under the column headings, Miscellaneous, United States, England, Ireland, Scotland, West Indies, Latest News, and Editorial. Several of the most representative items are reprinted below in order to give our readers an idea of the type of matter which composed the early newspapers of Port Hope.
England.—The mate of the British brig St. George saved a young lady from drowning in our bay on the evening of the 4th instant. She was on board a small schooner which was running in from the Narrows, when the steamboat Hercules came in collision with her and knocked the lady overboard. A few moments must have decided her fate, as the strong ebb tide was rapidly carrying her away. The gallant Briton immediately sprung to her rescue, and succeeded after a short buffeting with the waves, in placing his lovely charge in safety on the deck of the St. George. This chivalrous exploit elicited the most enthusiastic acclamations from all who were near enough to witness its accomplishment. — Emigrant and Old Countryman.
United States. — An attempt to poison n whole wedding party was made at the house of Mr John Harris, of Morgan County, Georgia, in the last week of July. Thirty-six out of forty present, says the Athene Whig, were made sick — but all recovered. The poison was mixed with the dressing of the turkey, and the cook is suspected,
England. — Odd Fellows — A lodge of Odd Fellows has lately been established at Norwich, and a public dinner of the members in that city last week, the chairman said, in Bradford there were upwards of 2,200 members, who paid annually on an average about £200 for the interment of the brethren and their wives; for the relief of the sick, and in charitable donations for the benefit of the distressed, about £700. In Leeds, there were 5,000 members, who paid near £3,000 a year for the same benevolent purposes. In the whole unity of England and Wales they had about 80,000 members, who expended annually at Last £60,000 in relieving others in time's of distress.
West Indies. — A Mr Thornton, a native of Barbados, has been found guilty at St. Kitts, on two indictments, charging him with removing two apprenticed laborers — formerly slaves — from the island, with the intention of taking them to Demerara, and there holding them in bondage. He was condemned to pay a tine of £50 for each offence.
West Indies. (from the Montreal Herald as copied by the Editor of the Gazette) — The most important information we find in these papers is from the island of Trinidad, where there has been an alarming mutiny of the black troops stationed at St. Joseph's. A letter states that the mutineers were about 200 in number, and were exclusively the new recruits, lately captured in slave ships, and enlisted into the British service, on their arrival at the island — which it seems is the course generally pursued with these recaptured Africans.

More From Later Papers To-morrow
This concludes the material gleaned from the columns of the "Gazette." To-morrow's article, a continuation of Article IV., will review several other valuable old papers in our possession.

ARTICLE 4 continued..
from the Evening Guide, March 14, 1925 - page 1.
BUSINESS DIRECTORY OF PORT HOPE IN 1849, TAKEN FROM ADVERTISER.
"Commercial Advertiser" Contains Many Local Advertisements — Many Liquor Notices.
Since yesterday's article appeared we have been very fortunate in finding two extremely well preserved copies of the Port Hope Gazette and Durham Advertiser, dated in 1843. These are copies of the fourth paper begun under Mr William Furby, and are merely a revival of the first Port Hope Gazette and U. C. Independent Examiner. These papers are very much similar to the earlier Gazette, but contain more matter of real, local interest. Advertisements were still rare, and the news items of the same sensational nature, but a marked improvement over the earlier is noted. The earliest copy in our hands is luckily the copy of the first volume published, in which the editor explains his policy and makes clear his opinions on the different subjects which were to come before him editorially. Mr Furby was intensely patriotic to his town, and the spirit of his first editorial is so well expressed that we are reprinting it below in full: —
"In Durham, one of the largest and most populous counties in the province, there is not a single newspaper published. This is certainly to be regretted, as the many advantages it enjoys are comparatively but little known, and therefore the vast resources of the County are but partially developed. Possessing elements of agricultural prosperity, unequalled perhaps, certainly not excelled, by any other part of the province, it offers inducements to settlers of more than ordinary attraction, particularly when it is added that the agricultural resources of the County are not the only means by which its prosperity and increase in wealth may be promoted. The unusual facilities afforded by the extensive and never failing water power in various parts of Durham indicate it as peculiarly adapted for the location of manufacturers and merchants." The remainder of the front page is taken up with short stories, dealing with practically every subject imaginable, romance, science, animals, the weather, religion, politics, news, agriculture, jokes, poetry, etc. 

The Humor of the Age.
Some examples of the humor of the age are shown in the following extracts:
"Pray sir," said an ingenuous youth to a grave-looking old gentleman, at a party where they were discussing legal subjects, "What is the difference between a Scotch writer to the signet and an English lawyer?" 
"Just the same difference that there is between an Alligator and a Crocodile," was the reply.

The Oath and the Kiss.
"Do you," said Fanny t'other day, In earnest love me as you say: Or are those tender words applied Alike to fifty girls beside?"
"Dear, cruel girl," cried I, "forbear. For by those eyes — those lips — I swear" — And cried, "You've sworn — now kiss the book."

Of Interest to Oddfellows.
The following paragraph should be of interest to the I.O.O.F.:—
The origin of the order of Odd Fellows is of antique date. It was first established by the Roman soldiers in camp, after the Order of the Israelites, during the reign of Nero, the Roman Emperor, who commenced his reign, A.D. 65, at which time they were called Fellow Citizens. The name of Odd Fellows was given to this order of men, A.D. 70, by Titus Caesar, Emperor of Rome, from their singularity of notions, and from their knowing each other by night; as well as by day; and for their fidelity to him find their country, he not only gave them the name of Odd Fellows, but at the same time, as a pledge of friendship, presented them with a Dispensation, engraved on n plate of gold, having the following emblems, viz: — The Royal Arch of Titus Caesar, the Ark of the Covenant, the Golden Candlesticks, the Golden Table (weighing one great talent), the Sun for N.G., the Moon and Stars for V.G., a Lamb for Secretary, the Lion for Guardian, the Dove for Warden, and the Emblems of Morality for the G.M.

Racing at Newcastle.
In 1843, Port Hope, Cobourg and Newcastle were famous for the great horse races held there each year. One paragraph is relative to the 1843 races, which were to take place on June 22nd. In consequence of the Toronto Races taking place about the same time that was appointed for those of those Newcastle district, the latter have been postponed until the 22nd of June. Much sport is anticipated. There have been several horses in training.

The Board of Police in 1843.
One of the most interesting items found in this early issue of the Gazette is a complete list of the municipal officers of that year. Do you remember any of these old-timers:—
The following are the Members and Officers, Composing the Board of Police in Port Hope, for 1843: John D. Smith, Esq., President. David Smart, William Wallis, William Henderson, William Brogden, Members; Mr John Might, treasurer. Morgan Jellett, Clerk. William Barrett, Son. Surveyor. David Gillespie, Assessor. Collector and Weigher. William Lee and Robert Mitchell, Fire wardens. David Gillespie and James Johnston, Bailiffs. Gullan Sr Pound Keeper.

Liquor "Ads" Most Numerous.
Most numerous among the advertisements are paragraphs setting forth the good qualities of different brands of wines and liquors. Part Hope at that time was one of the leading distillery towns in Upper Canada, one of leading breweries being the Durham Distillery, operated by David Smart. One of these notices is reprinted below:

SUPERIOR DURHAM WHISKEY.
Manufactured at the Durham Distiiery, in the County of Durham.
Unrivalled in quality by any manufactured in the Province. 
A supply of the above article can at all times be obtained on application to the subscriber at Port Hope.
David Smart.
Durham Distillery, 26th May, 1843.

ARTICLE 5. 
from the Evening Guide, March 17, 1925 - page 4.
COUNCIL SESSION HELD, APRIL 1851.
A Report of An Old Time Meeting of Municipal Fathers, Where Erection of First Town Hall Was Discussed
In 1851, Port Hope's first municipal council ware holding their first meetings. The first town council was formed in 1850 and met on January 21st of that year in Strong's Hotel, for their inaugural session. The members of this Council were: — Mayor, J T Williams; members, J W Barrett, F W Metcalfe, W B Butterfield, W M Smith, W Mitchell, J Hutton, J Lynn, and A Porter. This membership included a Reeve and Deputy Reeve, until the withdrawal of Port Hope from the United Counties in 1860. This unwieldy body was reduced to a Mayor, Reeve, Deputy Reeve and six Councilors in 1896, and has continued as such to the present day.

Met in Hotels and Taverns.
Until the creation of the Town Hall in 1853, council meetings were held in the different hotels and taverns in Port Hope, the municipal fathers having a partiality to Strong's Exchange Coffee House, situated where the Queen's Hotel now stands. Later a room was rented in the Gillett building on the southeast corner of Queen and Walton streets, where meetings were held until the occupation of the Town Hall in 1853.

Report From Old Watchman.
The report of the proceedings of April session of the Town Council in 1851, as reproduced below is taken from an age yellowed copy of the Port Hope Watchman and Durham and Northumberland Advertiser. Compare it to the report of the March, 1925 Council session as found in another column of this issue.

PROCEEDINGS OF TOWN COUNCIL.
Monday, April 7, 1851. The Council met. Present — The Mayor, Messrs Councilors J Hatton, J A Ward, W M Smith, and S Hatton.
The minutes of last meeting were read.
Moved by Mr Ward, seconded by W M Smith, "That the Clerk advertise for tenders according to the plans and specifications in his hands, for grading and gravelling, and sidewalks on John, Queen and King streets, each tender to be made for grading, gravelling and sidewalks together or separately per rod. Carried.
The report of the Road Committee for Ward number 3 was read by the chairman, and referred to the Street Surveyor for his estimate and report.
Moved by Mr S Hatton, seconded by Mr W M Smith, "That tenders be advertised for immediately, for carrying a sidewalk of 2-inch plank from the wharf to the post office, six feet wide, and from thence to Coot's Corner on the allowance of road between lots numbers 4 and 5, three feet wide, the first portion to be on the east side of Mill street, and the other on the west side of the Rice Lake and Lake Ontario road." Carried.
Moved by Mr Quinlnn, seconded by Mr Lynn, "That the Clerk be required to instruct the Street Surveyor to lay the sidewalk immediately in a permanent manner, from Mr Hooey's grocery to Maitland street, and from thence to Robert Maxwell's store, which is at present laid down in a temporary manner, and a crossing at Maitland street." Carried.
Mr Ward brought in a by-law to provide for the purchase of a public square, and erecting a Town Hall. The Council went into Committee of the whole on the second reading, then rose and reported progress, and the Mayor took the chair.
The Council adjourned until Friday morning, the 11th instant, at 9 o'clock.

This series will be continued in the Daily Guide tomorrow.

ARTICLE 6. 
from the Evening Guide, March 19, 1925 - page 2.
TRANSPORTATION 100 YEARS AGO.
Old Accounts Show Cost of Conveyance in 1825.
A page, evidently torn from an account book, kept by an old saddler and blacksmith in Port Hope a century past, gives us some very interesting information.
This page is written on a sheet of hand-made paper, roughly ruled for figures, and the chirography is of the old English style, the letters being very open and in a flourishing style. Eighteen Shillings Fare to York
A counter account on the reverse side of this page reveals that in the year 1825 three men operated stage lines to York, Peterboro and Kingston, namely, Calvin Hamlin, Henry Adamson, and a Mr Wilder. Several items have reference to the fares paid in those days, for instance: —
By conveying John Sharp to York — 18 shillings ($4.32).
By conveying John Wren to York, with baggage — 18 shillings, 6 pence.
By conveying me to carrying place — 12 shillings.
The fare to Peterboro was moderate, considering that the communication to that town at that date was by means of the Indian Carrying Road to Rice Lake, by a rough road through Sackville's woods, and thus through Cavan to the village of Peterboro. The fare was 15 shillings, or a little over $3.60. Westward, the road led to Marsh's Inn at Port Britain, branching there to meet the main York road, which ran through Welcome and Dale. To the east, the road passed up Ward's Hill, and straight east, meeting the present Cobourg road about midway between the two towns. The present Cobourg road was first built by the Cobourg Road Company in about 1860.

The Mail Stage Lines.
The first regular mail stage began to run through Port Hope about this time (1825), prior to which, mail had been conveyed on foot or on horseback. The service was very slow and conducted under great hardship. Early in 1831 a regular five trips a week service was instituted, the coaches usually stopping at the Old Inn on the site of the present Queen's Hotel. In those early days the stages were very elaborate vehicles, drawn by four horses. The roads were very bad, and stages leaving Port Hope at 2 a.m. did not arrive in York until the following midnight, during which it was necessary for the travellers to walk considerable distances. Letters mailed in Newcastle on August 28th, 1831, reached Port Hope on August 31st; posted in Niagara Falls (then the scat of government) on May 13th, 1831, were received here on the 18th. Mailing costs were very high, and consequently few letters were sent. At that time a letter from Niagara Falls to Port Hope cost 8½ pence (17 cents), from York (Toronto) 7 pence (14 cents), Newcastle to Port Hope 4½ pence (9 cents) Asphodel, near Peterboro, to Port Hope 6 pence (12 cents).

More Material Later.
More of this interesting material will appear in the Guide later. Watch for it!
We thank our many friends for their kind offers of the use of old books etc., in their possession, and only regret that we are unable to use them at present. We are keeping their names on file however, and will probably call upon them as soon as we are able to find space to employ them.


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